All 8 Hawks That Live in Florida (Field Guide) - Explore Stunning Pics & ID

A majestic Cooper's hawk with brown and white plumage perched on a tree branch amid green foliage. The bird, facing forward with its head turned slightly to the side, stands out against a background of branches and a clear blue sky, capturing the natural beauty of Naples, Florida.


Hawks in Florida are a sight to behold, showcasing the state's diverse and thriving ecosystem. Understanding and identifying these magnificent birds is not only a thrilling experience but also crucial for preserving their natural habitat. In this field guide, we will explore the features, habitat, and actions of the eight hawk species found in Florida, accompanied by stunning photographs for easy identification.

Whether you love watching birds or enjoy being in nature, studying Florida's hawk population provides an exciting opportunity to experience the wilderness. Let's begin this journey together and discover more about these amazing birds of prey.

Florida: A Paradise for Hawks

Florida is a haven for hawks, with its diverse ecosystems and abundant prey resources making it an ideal habitat for these majestic raptors. Here's why Florida stands out as a paradise for hawks:

1. Varied Ecosystems

From coastal wetlands and marshes to pine forests and oak hammocks, Florida boasts a wide range of habitats that support different species of hawks. These habitats provide the necessary food sources, nesting sites, and perching locations for hawks to thrive.

2. Abundant Prey Resources

Florida's rich biodiversity ensures a plentiful supply of prey for hawks. The state is home to numerous small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds that serve as vital food sources for these raptors. This abundance of prey ensures that hawks can find sustenance year-round.

3. Top Predators

Hawks play a crucial role as top predators in maintaining ecosystem balance. By preying on small mammals and birds, they help control populations and prevent potential ecological imbalances. Understanding the importance of hawks in the food web is essential for conserving Florida's delicate ecosystems.

The diverse landscapes and ample food sources in Florida make it an attractive destination for hawks. These raptors have adapted to various habitats and hunting strategies to thrive in this unique environment. As we delve into the characteristics, habitat preferences, and behaviors of the eight hawk species found in Florida, we will gain a deeper appreciation for their role in this avian paradise.

1. Red-shouldered Hawk

A red-shouldered hawk, a majestic bird, stands on a wooden fence. It has a brownish-red breast, dark wings with white spots, and bright yellow talons. The background is a mix of out-of-focus green leaves and tree branches.

The Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) is a medium-sized hawk species known for its distinctive markings and vocal calls. Here are the key points to help you identify this beautiful bird:


The Red-shouldered Hawk has a reddish-orange underpart and shoulder, with black and white wings and tail. It has a relatively long tail compared to other hawks, and its head features a black cap and a pale throat.


This hawk species prefers wooded areas near water sources such as swamps, rivers, and wetlands. They can also be found in suburban areas with large trees.


Red-shouldered Hawks are known for their loud, piercing calls that sound like "kee-yer" or "kee-aah." They use these calls to establish territories and communicate with their mates. These hawks are also skilled hunters, feeding on small animals like snakes, frogs, rodents, and occasionally small birds.

Hunting Methods

When hunting, Red-shouldered Hawks typically perch on high branches or tree snags, scanning the ground for prey. Once they spot something of interest, they swoop down to capture it using their sharp talons.

Observing the distinct markings of the Red-shouldered Hawk is crucial for accurate identification. The photograph above showcases the reddish-orange underparts and shoulders that give this hawk its name. If you want to learn more about this magnificent bird's appearance and behavior in detail, check out this article which provides comprehensive information. Keep an eye out for these key features when trying to identify this species in the field.

2. Cooper’s Hawk

A bird with brown and white feathers perched on the top of a tree stump against a blurred background of green foliage. The hawk has a metal band on one of its legs and is looking to its left with its beak slightly open.

Cooper’s Hawk, hawk identification, Naples, Coconut Creek

The Cooper's Hawk is a fair-sized hawk known for its long rounded tail and square-shaped head. It has blue-gray coloring above and distinctive orange barring below.

Cooper's Hawks are distributed across North America. Notably, Naples and Coconut Creek in Florida have been recognized as prime locations for observing these magnificent birds.

These hawks are adapted for capturing birds in urban environments, making them a common sight near bird feeders and suburban parks. Their diet primarily consists of medium-sized birds and small mammals.

3. Northern Harrier

The Northern Harrier, also known as the marsh hawk, is a distinctive bird of prey with key identifying features that showcase sexual dimorphism. The male Northern Harrier displays gray upperparts and head, while the female exhibits dark brown above and orange-buff underparts. This difference in appearance contributes to the fascinating nature of hawk identification.

In Florida, the Northern Harrier prefers marshy habitats and hunts for prey by flying low over marshes using its unique flight style. It has an interesting technique for hunting where it uses an owl-like facial disc to locate and catch small animals in grasslands and wetlands.

Capturing the agile flight of a Northern Harrier through a captivating photograph can provide a visual reference for enthusiasts and bird watchers, highlighting the bird's remarkable behavior and habitat preferences.

Understanding these distinctive characteristics and behaviors is essential for accurately identifying the Northern Harrier and appreciating its ecological role in Florida's diverse hawk population.

4. Red-tailed Hawk

The Red-tailed Hawk is a fascinating bird that can be found in many different parts of Florida. Here are some key things to know about this species:

Geographic Range and Habitat

One remarkable thing about the Red-tailed Hawk is its ability to thrive in a wide range of environments. From forests to grasslands, you can spot these majestic birds soaring through the skies all across Florida.

Plumage Variation and Identification

While the Red-tailed Hawk may be common, identifying them can sometimes be tricky. This is because they come in various subspecies, each with its own unique plumage characteristics. So, if you're trying to differentiate between different hawks in Florida, keep an eye out for the subtle differences in their feathers.

Vocalization and Territory

Another interesting aspect of the Red-tailed Hawk is its vocal behavior. Instead of the typical chirping or tweeting sounds you might associate with birds, these hawks communicate through loud screeches. They use these calls not only to communicate with other hawks but also to establish their territory and warn off potential intruders.

"The Red-tailed Hawk's adaptability and vocal behaviors make it an intriguing subject for observation and study."

5. Short-tailed Hawk

The Short-tailed Hawk is a fascinating bird species found in Florida and sometimes seen in southern Texas. It is known for its distinct color variations, which make it easy to identify. Here are some key facts about this remarkable hawk:

  • Description: The Short-tailed Hawk has different color forms, making it stand out. It is mainly found in Florida and occasionally spotted in southern Texas.
  • Habitat and Behavior: This hawk has a special preference for reptiles as its main food, showing its unique role in the local ecosystem. During migration, it is also impressive to watch as it soars through the sky.

With its limited range and unique characteristics, the Short-tailed Hawk offers bird enthusiasts an interesting subject to observe and learn about.

6. Sharp-shinned Hawk

The Sharp-shinned Hawk is known for its small size compared to other accipiters, with distinctive blue-gray upperparts and orange barring on the underparts. This species is prevalent in forested areas of North America, including Florida's woodlands and suburban parks. However, there is controversy surrounding their predation on songbirds at backyard feeders, leading to debates about their impact on local bird populations. Effective management strategies are essential for minimizing conflicts and promoting coexistence between these raptors and songbird enthusiasts. If you're interested in conservation efforts for avian species like the Sharp-shinned Hawk, you might find this comprehensive conservation plan for Santee National Wildlife Refuge useful as it outlines strategies to protect and manage habitats that support various bird species.

7. Broad-winged Hawk

The Broad-winged Hawk, a smallish raptor similar in size to a crow, boasts dark brown feathers on its back and dark reddish-brown stripes underneath. However, what sets it apart is a distinctive feature - a wide tail with white bands. This hawk preys on voles, frogs, insects, and other small creatures while constructing large nests made of sticks high up in trees.

Migration Behavior

Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the Broad-winged Hawk is its behavior during migration. These hawks embark on an incredible journey all the way from Canada to their wintering areas in southern Florida and beyond. During this voyage, they often congregate in large groups and soar together in what's known as 'kettling'. This behavior allows them to utilize rising warm air currents for efficient flying and hunting.

Feeding Habits

The Broad-winged Hawk's feeding habits are intricately linked to its migration pattern. As they travel southwards, they take advantage of these warm air currents to conserve energy while searching for prey. By gliding on these currents, they can cover extensive distances without expending much energy. Even after reaching Florida, they continue to rely on these warm air currents for hunting and navigation.

Significance in Florida

The migratory behavior of the Broad-winged Hawk and its reliance on warm air currents make it a captivating species for research and observation. Its presence in Florida contributes to the state's diverse array of hawks and affords bird enthusiasts an opportunity to witness the awe-inspiring sight of flocks soaring together as they journey south.

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8. Swainson's Hawk

The Swainson's Hawk is a fascinating species known for its unique light and dark color phases. This hawk has an extensive breeding range in North America's open habitats, followed by a remarkable transcontinental migration to wintering grounds in South America. During the nesting season, Swainson's Hawks depend on grasshoppers as a primary food source, showcasing their distinctive foraging behavior.

Conserving Florida's Hawks

Preserving the habitat and protecting Florida's hawk species is crucial for their survival. By understanding the importance of conservation efforts and practicing responsible birdwatching, we can ensure the continued presence of these magnificent raptors in our state. Here are some key points to consider:

1. Habitat Preservation

Hawks rely on diverse habitats for nesting, foraging, and migration. Protecting natural areas, such as forests, wetlands, grasslands, and coastal regions, is essential for maintaining the ecological balance that supports these birds. By advocating for land preservation and supporting organizations dedicated to habitat conservation, we can contribute to the well-being of hawks and other wildlife.

2. Responsible Birdwatching

As bird enthusiasts, it is our responsibility to minimize disturbance to hawk populations while observing them in their natural environment. Follow these guidelines to practice ethical birdwatching:

  • Keep a safe distance from nests and roosting sites to avoid causing stress or abandonment.
  • Avoid excessive use of recordings or calls that may disrupt the birds' behavior.
  • Stay on designated trails and paths to minimize disturbance to habitats.
  • Do not approach nests or attempt to handle injured hawks without proper training or permits. Contact local wildlife authorities or rehabilitation centers for assistance.

3. Citizen Science Initiatives

Reporting hawk sightings to citizen science projects provides valuable data for monitoring population trends and distribution. By contributing your observations, you can help scientists better understand the habitats, behavior, and movements of these birds. Consider participating in initiatives such as eBird or HawkWatch International's Raptor Population Index to contribute to ongoing research efforts.

4. Further Exploration

If you're interested in learning more about Florida's hawks or getting involved in raptor conservation efforts, here are some resources worth exploring:

  • Visit local birding hotspots like Everglades National Park, Paynes Prairie Preserve State Park, or the Apalachicola National Forest for opportunities to observe hawks in their natural habitats.
  • Connect with organizations such as Audubon Florida or the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) for information on local conservation initiatives and volunteer opportunities.
  • Consider joining birding groups or clubs in your area to meet other enthusiasts, share experiences, and participate in guided field trips.

By taking these steps, we can contribute to the preservation of Florida's hawks and their habitats, ensuring that future generations can enjoy the beauty and wonder of these magnificent birds. Together, we can make a difference in their conservation efforts.


Florida is undoubtedly a paradise for hawks, offering a diverse range of ecosystems and abundant prey resources. By understanding the characteristics, habitat, and behavior of the eight hawk species found in Florida, we can better appreciate their role as top predators in maintaining ecosystem balance.

Through this field guide, you now have the tools to identify and appreciate these magnificent birds. Armed with stunning photographs and detailed descriptions, you can confidently venture into the field and observe these hawks in their natural habitats.

Remember to be respectful of their environment and follow ethical birdwatching practices. Take the time to learn about their behaviors, such as hunting techniques and preferred habitats. This knowledge will not only enhance your own experiences but also contribute to the conservation efforts aimed at protecting these remarkable birds.

So grab your field guide and embark on an adventure to explore Florida's stunning hawks. Witness their majestic flight, marvel at their unique plumage, and deepen your connection with nature. Happy birding!

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Are hawks protected in Florida?

Yes, hawks are protected in Florida under the state's wildlife conservation laws. It is illegal to harm, harass, or disturb hawks or their nests without proper permits.

Are there hawks in Florida?

Yes, Florida is home to a diverse population of hawks. There are eight different hawk species that can be spotted in Florida, making it a paradise for hawk enthusiasts and birdwatchers.

What is the largest hawk in Florida?

The Red-tailed Hawk is the largest hawk species commonly found in Florida. Known for its broad geographic range and impressive size, the Red-tailed Hawk is a prominent raptor in the state's ecosystems.

How many hawk species can be spotted in Florida?

There are eight different hawk species that can be spotted in Florida. These include the Red-shouldered Hawk, Cooper’s Hawk, Northern Harrier, Red-tailed Hawk, Short-tailed Hawk, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Broad-winged Hawk, and Swainson's Hawk.

What do hawks eat in Florida?

Hawks in Florida have diverse diets that primarily consist of small mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. Their hunting strategies vary based on their species and habitat preferences.

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